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The Supreme Court of Indonesia Mahkamah Agung is the country's highest court, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; the State Administrative Court Pengadilan Tata Negara to hear administrative law cases against the government; the Constitutional Court Mahkamah Konstitusi to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and the Religious Court Pengadilan Agama to deal with codified Islamic Law sharia cases.
Since , Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In all legislative elections since the fall of New Order , no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats.
Based on the elections, the DPR consists of 10 political parties, with a parliamentary threshold of 3. At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD.
Indonesia consists of 34 provinces, five of which have special status. These are further subdivided into districts kecamatan or distrik in Papua , and again into administrative villages either desa , kelurahan , kampung , nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh.
This number has evolved over time, the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in October The village is the lowest level of government administration.
Furthermore, it is divided into several community groups rukun warga , RW which are further divided into neighbourhood groups rukun tetangga , RT.
In Java, the village desa is divided further into smaller units called dusun or dukuh hamlets , these units are the same as RW. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in , the regencies and cities have become key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services.
The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village chief lurah or kepala desa.
Aceh , Jakarta , Yogyakarta , Papua , and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.
Aceh has the right to create certain elements of an independent legal system and several regional parties participate only in elections within the province.
Indonesia currently maintains diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies. It does, however, maintain quiet relations with Israel, particularly in trade, tourism and security.
It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal. Defense spending in the national budget was 0.
As a result of this, and the need to maintain internal security, all branches of the TNI have been organised along territorial lines, aimed at defeating internal enemies and potential external invaders.
Following political reforms in , the TNI's formal representation in parliament was removed. Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level.
Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements. Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play significant roles.
Over time, the structure of the Indonesian economy has changed considerably. The growth, however, ended with the Asian financial crisis , which severely affected Indonesia both economically and politically.
It caused a real GDP contraction by The economy reached its low point in mid with only 0. Recent strong economic growth has been accompanied by relatively steady inflation,  and an increase in GDP deflator and Consumer Price Index.
In , the country regained the investment grade rating it had lost in During the last five years, exports and imports have decreased at an annual rate of 3 to 4.
The country's main exports are led by palm oil and coal briquettes, with jewellery, cars and vehicle parts, rubber, and copper ore making up the majority of other exports, while imports mainly consist of refined petroleum and crude petroleum, with telephones, computers, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of other imports.
Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its million people highly concentrated on Java.
In , the transport sector generated about 5. The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of , kilometres , miles as of [update]. Most of Indonesia's railways are located in Java, used for both passenger and freight transport.
The inter-city rail network is complemented by local commuter rail services in Greater Jakarta , Surabaya and Bandung. Mass rapid transit and light rail transit systems are currently under construction in Jakarta and Palembang,   and a plan to build a high-speed rail was announced in , the first in Southeast Asia.
Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno—Hatta International Airport is the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere , serving 63 million passengers in Garuda Indonesia , the country's flag carrier since , is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam.
In , Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with Jatiluhur Dam , the country's largest dam, serves several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture.
Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0. However, there are many examples of notable scientific and technological developments by Indonesians.
Living in agrarian and maritime culture, they have been famous in some traditional technologies. In the former, as with other nations in Southeast Asia, they are famous in paddy cultivation technique, terasering.
Bugis and Makassar people are well known in the latter, making wooden sailing vessel called pinisi boats. It later became widely used in several countries.
Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to produce and develop its own aircraft.
With state-owned aircraft company, the Indonesian Aerospace PT. Habibie played an important role in this achievement. In the s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate its own satellite system called Palapa.
Since January , Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of an international marketing campaign directed by the Ministry of Tourism to promote tourism.
Nature and culture are major attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of tropical climate, vast archipelago and long stretch of beaches, and are complemented by a rich cultural heritage that reflects Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity.
Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. The ancient Prambanan and Borobudur temples, Toraja and Bali , with its Hindu festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.
Other activities include visiting museums, churches, forts and historical colonial buildings, as well as spending some nights in colonial heritage hotels.
The popular heritage tourism attractions include the Jakarta Old Town and the royal Javanese courts of Yogyakarta , Surakarta and the Mangkunegaran.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranks Indonesia 42nd out of countries overall with a score of 4.
It states that Indonesia has a strong visa policy and scored well on international openness ranked 2nd and 17th respectively. The country also scores well on natural and cultural resources ranked 17th and 23rd respectively.
However, Indonesia has a low score in infrastructure ranked 96th , as some aspect of tourist service infrastructure are underdeveloped.
The census recorded Indonesia's population as The population is unevenly spread throughout the islands within a variety of habitats and levels of development , ranging from the megalopolis of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua.
Indonesia is a very ethnically diverse country, with around distinct native ethnic groups. The Sundanese , Batak and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups.
The country's official language is Indonesian , a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect , which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago.
It was promoted by nationalists in the s , and declared the official language under the name Bahasa Indonesia in Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than local languages,  often as their first language.
Some belong to the Austronesian language family , while over Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia. In , Dutch and other Europeans Totok , Eurasians , and derivative people like the Indos , numbered , or 0.
Despite the Dutch presence for almost years, the Dutch language has no official status  and the small minority that can speak the language fluently are either educated members of the oldest generation, or employed in the legal profession,  as certain law codes are still only available in Dutch.
While religious freedom is stipulated in the constitution,   the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam , Protestantism , Roman Catholicism , Hinduism , Buddhism , and Confucianism ;  although indigenous faiths are also recognised.
Prior to the arrival of Hinduism, Buddhism and Abrahamic religions, the natives of the Indonesian archipelago practiced indigenous animism and dynamism , beliefs that are common to Austronesian people.
These native customs and beliefs had significant impact on how other faiths are practiced, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan , Balinese Hindus , and Dayak Christians—practicing a less orthodox , syncretic form of their religion.
Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE. The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit , Sailendra , Srivijaya and Mataram.
Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was introduced to the archipelago by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence, as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabian peninsula.
Catholicism was brought to the archipelago by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier , who visited and baptised several thousand locals.
In present-day Flores , the royal house of Larantuka formed the only native Catholic kingdom in Southeast Asia around 16th century, with the first king named Lorenzo.
Education in Indonesia is compulsory for 12 years. The literacy rate is Andalas University is pioneering the establishment of a leading university outside of Java.
Government expenditure on healthcare is about 2. In recent decades, health indicators have significantly improved such as rising life expectancy from 63 in to 71 in and declining child mortality from 84 deaths per 1, births in to 27 deaths in This has created a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres such as Sumatra and Java and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas such as Maluku and Papua.
In , the Chinese Christian governor of Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama was sentenced to two years in prison after being found guilty of blasphemy.
Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society,   with significant cultural, linguistic and religious differences developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian , Arabic , Chinese , and European sources.
Indonesia currently holds 9 items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage , which include wayang puppet theatre , kris , batik , education and training on making Indonesian batik, angklung , saman dance , noken , and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance.
Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries, and a recently developed contemporary art. Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India , the Arab world , China and Europe , as a result of centuries of contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade.
Megalithic sculpture has been discovered on several sites in Indonesia. Between the 8th and 15th century, Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation.
The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice. As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that has brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques.
The most dominant influence has traditionally been Indian ; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant.
Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' rumah adat styles have been developed.
The traditional houses and settlements of the numerous ethnic groups of Indonesia vary widely and have their own specific history. They are at the centre of a web of customs, social relations, traditional laws and religions that bind the villagers together.
The music of Indonesia predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied with musical instruments in their rituals.
Angklung , kacapi suling , siteran , gong , gamelan , degung , gong kebyar , bumbung , talempong , kulintang and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments.
The diverse world of Indonesian music genres are the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences.
These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East,  keroncong from Portugal,  and dangdut —one of the most popular music genres in Indonesia—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras.
The country's complex history also contributes to diversity in Indonesian dances. There are more than 3, original dances in the country.
Scholars believe that the dances have had their beginning in rituals and religious worship,  such as war dances, dance of witch doctors , and dance to call for rain or any agricultural-related rituals such as Hudoq.
Dances in the country are historically influenced by three distinct eras: In recent times, modern dances are also showcased in show business, such as those that accompany music performances or entertainment.
Influenced by Western culture, urban teen dances such as street dances have gained popularity among the Indonesian youth.
Traditional dances, however, such as the Javanese , Sundanese , Minang , Balinese , Saman continue to be a living and dynamic traditions.
Indonesia has a variety style of clothing as a result from its long, complex and rich cultural history. Its national costume is derived from the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions.
Since the island of Java has been the political, economic and cultural center of Indonesia, the Javanese Batik and Kebaya  are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume, although they originally belong not only to the Javanese, but also Sundanese and Balinese cultures as well.
Each province in the country has their own representation of traditional attire and dress,  such as Ulos of Batak from North Sumatra ; Songket of Malay and Minangkabau from Sumatra; and Ikat of Sasak from Lombok.
National costumes are worn during traditional weddings and formal ceremonies, where attires of regional costumes are clearly visible ranging from traditional to modern attire, as well as on government and official occasions,  with the most visible display being those worn by diplomats, the President and the First Lady.
Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour. Spices notably chili , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.
Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng , gado-gado , sate , and soto are very common in the country and considered as national dishes.
The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in , describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions.
Wayang , the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals,   and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story.
Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are popular in the country as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society.
The first domestically produced film in Indonesia was Loetoeng Kasaroeng , a silent film by Dutch director L. After independence, the film industry expanded rapidly, with six films made in rising to 58 in Djamaluddin Malik 's Persari Film often emulated American genre films and the working practices of the Hollywood studio system, as well as remaking popular Indian films.
After the overthrow of Sukarno, films during the New Order were regulated through a censorship code that aimed to maintain social order.
Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry in the post-Suharto era , where films started addressing topics that were previously banned, such as religion, race, and love.
Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6. It hands out the Citra Award , the film industry's most prestigious award.
From to , the festival was held annually and then discontinued until it was later revived in Sports are generally male-oriented and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling.
Indonesian badminton players have won the Thomas Cup the world team championship of men's badminton 13 times since it was held in , as well as numerous Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in Indonesian women have won the Uber Cup , the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, 3 times, in , and Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league.
Indonesia's first appearance in the AFC Asian Cup was in , and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments.
They, however, failed to progress through the next stage in all occasions. Another popular sports include boxing and basketball , which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games Pekan Olahraga Nasional , PON in In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba.
Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in , became one of the sporting events in Southeast Asian Games , with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading forces.
In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the major sport powerhouses by winning the Southeast Asian Games 10 times since , most recently in Media freedom increased considerably after the end of New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media.
By early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village in the country and people can choose from up to 11 channels.
The number of printed publications has increased significantly since Like other developing countries, Indonesia began the development of Internet in the early s.
Its first commercial Internet service provider , PT. Indo Internet, began operation in Jakarta in The majority of Internet users are between the ages of 18 and 25, with an average Internet usage of 4.
The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century.
Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly rooted oral traditions , which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition.
Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli , who criticised treatment of natives under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Mohammad Yamin and Hamka , who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians;  and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer , Indonesia's most famous novelist.
There are around 13 to 17 national holidays every year in Indonesia. The government sometimes declares a collective leave known as cuti bersama , usually on a Monday or Friday between national holidays to create a long weekend.
Four types of holidays exist in the country: These dates are known locally as tanggal merah literally , "red date" , so called because they are marked red on calendars.
Many of the dates of religious holidays vary from year to year, as they are based on different calendars. For example, the Muslim holidays are based on the Islamic calendar.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Republic in Southeast Asia. Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia. Species endemic to Indonesia. Rafflesia arnoldii , orangutan , greater bird-of-paradise , and Komodo dragon.
List of political parties in Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia. Joko Widodo 7th President of Indonesia.
Jusuf Kalla 10th and 12th Vice President of Indonesia. Foreign relations of Indonesia. Economy of Indonesia and Economic history of Indonesia.
Major transport in Indonesia. Science and technology in Indonesia. Demographics of Indonesia , Indonesians , and Women in Indonesia. Largest cities or towns in Indonesia Statistics Indonesia .
Religion in Indonesia  Religion Percent Islam. Education in Indonesia and Health in Indonesia. Human rights in Indonesia.
Indonesian art and Architecture of Indonesia. Music of Indonesia and Dance in Indonesia. Indonesian music and dance.
National costume of Indonesia. Public holidays in Indonesia. Indonesia portal Asia portal Islands portal.
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People's Representative Council Indonesia Raya is the national anthem of the Republic of Indonesia.
Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of Indonesia. The function of Indonesian language is as the national identity, national pride, and unifying language among diverse Indonesian ethnic groups, and also serves as communication vehicle among Indonesian provinces and different regional cultures in Indonesia.
There are three categories of floral emblem that symbolise Indonesia:. In addition, Indonesia also recognised Teak as the national tree.
Indonesian animal emblems are Indonesian endemic fauna that gain the status as national animal symbol that represent Indonesia and describe Indonesian biodiversity.
Today there are three animals that gained the status as Indonesian animal emblems:. Next to national animal symbols, there are also more specific provincial animals emblems that represent each respective provinces of Indonesia.
Other than national symbols that officially represent Indonesia and enforced through law, there are also other symbols or icons that widely accepted to describes or represents Indonesia.
It might derived from Indonesian monuments, the popular architectural landmarks of Indonesia, or it might be some of popular aspects of Indonesian culture.
Ibu Pertiwi is a popular theme in Indonesian patriotic songs and poems and was mentioned in several of them, such as the song " Ibu Pertiwi " and " Indonesia Pusaka ".
Nusantara is an Indonesian word for the Indonesian archipelago. It is named like that because Indonesian archipelago is located between two continents Asia and Australia and two oceans Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean  The map of Indonesian archipelago often used to symbolise Indonesia, especially Indonesian territory.
Batik , Kebaya and Songket are the most widely recognised Indonesian national costumes. These traditional costumes represent Indonesia and are derived from Indonesian culture and Indonesian traditional textile traditions.
National costumes are worn during official national functions as well as during traditional ceremonies. The most obvious display of Indonesian national costumes can be seen by the type of costumes worn by President of Indonesia and Indonesian first lady , and also by Indonesian diplomatic officials during gala dinners.
The national costumes of Indonesia are also worn by guests attending Indonesian traditional wedding ceremonies. However the monument that represent Indonesian nationhood is actually the Monas in Central Jakarta , although today it is mostly associated with the capital Jakarta instead.
Other ancient temple of Prambanan also might be used as national symbol, although often overshadowed by Borobudur. Other vernacular architectural features that often used to describe Indonesia are pagoda like multi-tiered Meru roof of Balinese temples , and traditional houses such as Minangkabau 's Rumah Gadang and Torajan 's Tongkonan.
Some of traditional Indonesian culture , artworks, artforms, and traditions are often widely recognised and promoted to represent Indonesia.
Although some might be shared with culturally similar neighbouring country such as Malaysia , for example keris is also can be found in Malaysian and Brunei culture.
For the culturally and ethnically diverse nation such as Indonesia, the national dishes are not just staple, popular or ubiquitous dishes such as Nasi Goreng  or Gado-gado.
It has to be able to cross boundaries of diverse Indonesian culture and ethnic groups. As a result, it is impossible to nominate a single national dish of Indonesia.
Sate  and Soto  are good examples of Indonesian national dishes, since there is no singular satay or soto recipes. Both dishes have myriad variations and recipes and are adopted regionally across Indonesia.
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Faderns sida av familjen ärver mer än moderns när det gäller den sistnämnda gruppen. Uppdelningen mellan släktingar är enligt Koranen: Äktenskap räknas som förtjänstfullt, mandub , men inte en plikt, wajib.
Äktenskapet lagfästs av en qadi. Brudparet representeras av en wali , vanligtvis den närmste manliga släktingen, men oftast kan vuxna män själv vara wali.
Det är endast inom den hanifitiska rättskolan som en vuxen kvinna kan vara sin egen wali och gifta sig utan sina släktingars medgivande.
Det är inte ett brudpris , utan kvinnans egendom. Brudpengens andra del kan betalas ut även om den inte är specificerad i äktenskapskontraktet.
Han skall dock begränsa sig till en enda om han tror sig om att inte kunna behandla flera hustrur lika, vilket skulle kunna göra det lättare för honom att undvika partiskhet.
Detta skapar komplikationer speciellt om äktenskapskontrakt görs upp när det blivande brudparet fortfarande är barn.
Mut'ah utbetalas särskilt om äktenskapet inte fullbordats vilket sker genom samlag. I shiitisk rätt avser begreppet mut'ah persiska sighe ett tillfälligt, tidsbegränsat äktenskap.
Parterna skriver i vissa fall ett kontrakt, i andra fall räcker det med en muntlig överenskommelse. Kritiker betecknar mut'ah som legaliserad prostitution.
Skilsmässa räknas som klandervärt, makruh. I en del muslimska traditioner är det endast möjligt för kvinnan att kräva skilsmässa om mannen är impotent eller psykiskt sjuk.
Enligt andra rättstraditioner kan kvinnan begära hos en qadi domare att äktenskapet upplöses khul mot att hon avsäger sig sina ekonomiska rättigheter.
Antropologen Lawrence Rosen [ 20 ] uppskattar att var tredje muslimsk skilsmässa är en form av khul. Alla barn födda inom ett äktenskap betraktas som äkta och det anses vara mannens barn.
De är därför en del av mannens släkt, inte kvinnans. Han kan även avsäga sig faderskapet, li'an. Mannen har fullt ekonomiskt ansvar. Söner blir försörjda fram tills de börjar arbeta och döttrar tills de gifter sig.
Kvinnor som skilt sig eller blivit änkor blir försörjda av sin närmaste manliga släkting igen. Förbjuden haram mat är bland annat griskött , blod, kadaver och alkoholdrycker.
Inom islam innebär jihad framförallt självrannsakan och striden mot frestelsen och det förbjudna haram. Den som utför jihad kallas mujahid plur.
Jihad akbar är kampen mot sin inre ondska, djävulen inom sig, egoism , och rädsla , och är strävan till att bli en god muslim som hjälper och gör gott och lever i fred och harmoni.
Jihad asghar är kampen mot det orättvisa och oacceptabla i samhället eller nationen. I västvärlden associeras "jihad" ofta till moderna jihadistiska militanta rörelser, och islamistisk terrorism.
Islams historia har skrivits av muslimer som hade som syfte att skriva en religiös historia som legitimerade islams trosprinciper och herravälde över andra kulturer.
Det är först i modern tid som en historisk-kritisk forskning om islams utbredning och historia har uppkommit. Muhammed förde först fram sitt budskap för sin egen stam, quraysh.
Dessutom var han i konflikt med sin egen stam, quraysh, och kunde därför inte betraktas som agent för de styrande i Mekka.
Under striderna mot Mekka fick Muhammed inflytande över de omgivande arabstammarna. Judarna i Yathrib accepterade inte Muhammed som profet, och det ledde till att islam mer och mer kom att betraktas som en egen religion.
Före sin död kunde Muhammed uppleva att praktiskt taget hela arabiska halvön erkänt honom som ledare. Kalif var den titel som den andlige och världslige ledaren för sunnitisk islam fick.
Alis fraktion kallas shiat Ali eller enbart shia. Under hans tid som kalif — skedde den första stora utvidgningen av det nya väldet.
Under Umar inleddes invasionen av Iran och Bysans som var kraftigt försvagade av krig och inbördes stridigheter.
Uthman var medlem i den umayyadiska familjen , en av de ledande i det gamla Mekka. Efter ett uppror flyttade Ali till Kufa i Irak.
Uthmans släkting Muawiya I var guvernör i Damaskus. Alis död innebar att Muawiyas maktställning stod fast.
Den shiitiska gruppens imam , Alis son Hasan , accepterade att dra sig tillbaka, och levde resten av sitt liv i Medina.
Expansionen fortsatte och statens administration fick fasta former. Anhängare av de religioner som uttryckligen tilläts i Koranen kristendomen och judendomen behöll sina religioner och hade ett visst självstyre.
Dessa betalade en särskild skatt, jizya , till kalifen, vilket ledde till ett utbrett missnöje bland den icke-arabiska majoriteten i Mellanöstern.
Den begränsade religionsfriheten omfattade inte anhängare av iranska religioner zoroastrism , manikeism , mazdakism som förföljdes. Det visade sig att han hade fel.
Dagen kallas Aashura och är en stor sorgehögtid inom shiitisk islam. I öster gick man in i Centralasien och Indien. Kritikerna menade att riket hade blivit ett kungadöme mulk , vilket var främmande för islam, och att icke-araber diskriminerades.
Makten hamnade nu hos abbasiderna , ättlingar till profetens farbror Abbas. Den persiske läkaren Avicennas verk användes som läromedel i medicin i Europa fram till talet.
I länder som Iran och Afghanistan ersattes sekulära regimer med islamistiska ställningar medan transnationella extremistgrupper som Usama bin Ladins al-Qaeda engagerade sig inom terrorism.
För fullständighetens skull nämns de här:. Den muslimska populationen i världen uppskattas vara i storleksordningen 1—1,8 miljarder. Omkring 90 procent av dessa är sunni och cirka 10 procent är shia.
I cirka 30—40 länder är majoriteten av befolkningen muslimer. Islam är den näst största religionen i världen, efter kristendomen.
I det traditionella muslimska samhället är ansvaret för skötseln av hemmet och barnen kvinnans uppgift, medan mannen är skyldig att ordna med ekonomisk försörjning.
Bönen leds av en imam. Det arabiska ordet för flykt är hijra och den muslimska kalendern kallas därför även hijrakalendern.
Islam är Sveriges och världens näst största religion efter kristendomen. Däremot har arkitektur, dekorationer och kalligrafi blivit vitala uttryck för konsten.
Detta symboliserades främst av Guds heliga ord nedtecknat med arabisk skrift i Koranen. Det var främst ornamentiken, som i västerlandet fick namnet arabesk , samt kalligrafin som gav den islamiska konsten dess karakteristiska uttryck.
Den islamiska arkitekturen har av tradition, liksom den islamiska konsten i allmänhet, varit orienterad mot det abstrakta och geometriska. By borrowing heavily from numerous other languages it expresses a natural linguistic evolution; in fact, it is as natural as the next language, as demonstrated in its exceptional capacity for absorbing foreign vocabulary.
The disparate evolution of Indonesian and Malaysian has led to a rift between the two standardized registers.
This has been based more upon political nuance and the history of their standardization rather than cultural reasons, and as a result there are asymmetrical views regarding each other's variety among Malaysians and Indonesians.
In Malaysia, the national language is called either Malay or Malaysian; in Indonesia, it is Indonesian.
Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely different normative varieties of the same language, while Indonesians tend to treat them as separate, albeit closely related, languages.
The result of this attitude is that Indonesians feel little need to harmonize their language with Malaysia and Brunei, whereas Malaysians are keener to coordinate the evolution of the language with Indonesians,  although the Indonesian alphabet reform was largely seen as a concession of Dutch-based Indonesian to the English-based spelling of Malaysian.
It is usually said that there are six vowels in Indonesian. In standard Indonesian orthography, the Latin alphabet is used, and five vowels are distinguished: Some analyses claim that Indonesian has three native diphthong phonemes only in open syllables, they are:.
On this basis, there are no phonological diphthongs in Indonesian. The consonants of Indonesian are shown below. The sounds are represented orthographically by their symbols as above, except:.
If the penult has a schwa, then stress moves to the ante-penultimate syllable if there is one, even if that syllable has a schwa as well; if the word is disyllabic, the stress is final.
In disyllabic stress with a closed penultimate syllable, such as tinggal 'stay' and rantai 'chain' , stress falls on the penult.
However, there is some disagreement among linguists over whether stress is phonemic unpredictable , with some analyses suggesting that there is no underlying stress in Indonesian.
The classification of languages based on rhythm can be problematic. Word order in Indonesian is generally subject-verb-object SVO , similar to that of most modern European languages , such as English.
However considerable flexibility in word ordering exists, in contrast with languages such as Japanese or Korean , for instance, which always end clauses with verbs.
Indonesian, while allowing for relatively flexible word orderings, does not mark for grammatical case nor does it make use of grammatical gender.
In Indonesian, affixes take on an important role because slightly different affixes may have very different meanings.
There are four types of affixes: Affixes are categorized into noun, verb, and adjective affixes. Root words are either nouns or verbs, which can take on affixes to generate new words, for example, masak to cook may become memasak cooks , memasakkan cooks for , dimasak cooked , pemasak a cook , masakan a meal, cookery.
Many initial consonants alternate in the presence of prefixes: Other examples of the use of affixes to change the meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar teach:.
Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes:.
The prefix per- drops its r before r, l and frequently before p, t, k. In some words it is peng- ; though formally distinct, these are treated as variants of the same prefix in Indonesian grammar books.
Similarly, verb affixes in Indonesian are attached to root words to form verbs. In Indonesian, there are:. In addition to these affixes, Indonesian also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English.
For example, maha- , pasca- , eka- , bi- , anti- , pro- etc. Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender , and there are only selected words that use natural gender.
A majority of Indonesian words that refer to people generally have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. However, unlike English, distinction is made between older or younger.
There are some words that have gender, for instance putri means "daughter", and putra means "son" and also pramugara means "male flight attendant" and pramugari meaning "female flight attendant".
Another example would be olahragawan , which equates to "sportsman", and olahragawati , meaning sportswoman. Often, words like these or certain suffixes such as "-a" and "-i" or "-wan" and "wati" are absorbed from other languages in these cases, from Sanskrit through the Old Javanese language.
Similarly, more direct influences from other languages, such as Javanese and Chinese, have also seen further use of other gendered words in Indonesian.
Mas "older brother" , M'bak "older sister" , Koko "older brother" and Cici "older sister". Indonesian grammar does not regularly mark plurals.
In Indonesian, to change a singular into a plural one either repeats the word or adds para before it the latter for living things only ; for example, "students" can be either murid-murid or para murid.
Plurals are rarely used in Indonesian, especially in informal parlance. Reduplication is often mentioned as the formal way to express the plural form of nouns in Indonesian; however, in informal daily discourse , speakers of Indonesian usually use other methods to indicate the concept of something being "more than one".
Reduplication may also indicate the conditions of variety and diversity as well, and not simply plurality. Reduplication is commonly used to emphasize plurality; however, reduplication has many other functions.
For example, orang-orang means " all the people", but orang-orangan means "scarecrow". Similarly, while hati means "heart" or "liver", hati-hati is a verb meaning "to be careful".
Some reduplication is rhyming rather than exact, as in sayur-mayur " all sorts of vegetables". Distributive affixes derive mass nouns that are effectively plural: Quantity words come before the noun: Plural in Indonesian serves just to explicitly mention the number of objects in sentence.
For example, Ani membeli satu kilo mangga Ani buys one kilogram of mangoes. In this case, "mangoes", which is plural, is not said as mangga-mangga because the plurality is implicit: So, as it is logically, one does not change the singular into the plural form, because it is not necessary and considered a pleonasm in Indonesian often called pemborosan kata.
Personal pronouns are not a separate part of speech, but a subset of nouns. They are frequently omitted, and there are numerous ways to say "you".
Commonly the person's name, title, title with name, or occupation is used "does Johnny want to go? However, there are also dedicated personal pronouns, as well as the demonstrative pronouns ini "this, the" and itu "that, the".
From the perspective of a European language, Indonesian boasts a wide range of different pronouns, especially to refer to the addressee the so-called second person pronouns.
These are used to differentiate several parameters of the person they are referred to, such as the social rank and the relationship between the addressee and the speaker.
This table shows an overview over the most commonly and widely used pronouns of the Indonesian language:.
Notable among the personal-pronoun system is a distinction between two forms of "we": The distinction is increasingly confused in colloquial Indonesian.
Saya and aku are the two major forms of "I". Saya is the more formal form, whereas aku is used with family, friends, and between lovers.
Sahaya is an old or literary form of saya. Sa ha ya may also be used for "we", but in such cases it is usually used with sekalian or semua "all"; this form is ambiguous as to whether it corresponds with inclusive kami or exclusive kita.
There are three common forms of "you", Anda polite , kamu familiar , and kalian "all" commonly used as a plural form of you, slightly informal.
Anda is used with strangers, recent acquaintances, in advertisements, in business, and when you wish to show respect though terms like tuan "sir" and other titles also show respect , while kamu is used in situations where the speaker would use aku for "I".
Anda sekalian is polite plural. The compounds makcik and pakcik are used with village elders one is well acquainted with or the guest of.
As with "you", names and kin terms are extremely common. Mereka "someone", mereka itu , or orang itu "those people" are used for "they".
There are a large number of other words for "I" and "you", many regional, dialectical, or borrowed from local languages.
Saudara "you" male and saudari female plural saudara-saudara or saudari-saudari show utmost respect. Daku "I" and dikau "you" are poetic or romantic.
Indonesian gua "I" from Hokkien Chinese: Aku, kamu, engkau , and ia have short possessive enclitic forms. All others retain their full forms like other nouns, as does emphatic dia: There are also proclitic forms of aku , ku- and kau-.
These are used when there is no emphasis on the pronoun:. There are two demonstrative pronouns in Indonesian.
Ini "this, these" is used for a noun which is generally near to the speaker. Itu "that, those" is used for a noun which is generally far from the speaker.
Either may sometimes be equivalent to English "the". There is no difference between singular and plural.
However, plural can be indicated through duplication of a noun followed by a ini or itu. Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs such as "yesterday" or by other tense indicators, such as sudah "already" and belum "not yet".
On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and to denote voice or intentional and accidental moods.
Some of these affixes are ignored in colloquial speech. Four words are used for negation in Indonesian, namely tidak , bukan , jangan , and belum.
For negating imperatives or advising against certain actions in Indonesian, the word jangan do not is used before the verb.
There are grammatical adjectives in Indonesian. Stative verbs are often used for this purpose as well. Adjectives are always placed after the noun that they modify.
Hence, "rumah saya" means "my house", while "saya rumah" means "I am a house". To say that something "is" an adjective, the determiners "itu" and "ini" "that" and "this" are often used.
However, if "itu" or "ini" were not to be used, then "anjing galak" would meaning only "ferocious dog", a plain adjective without any stative implications.
The all-purpose determiner, "yang", is also often used before adjectives, hence "anjing yang galak" also means "ferocious dog" or more literally "dog which is ferocious"; "yang" will often be used for clarity.
Hence, in a sentence such as "saya didekati oleh anjing galak" which means "I was approached by a ferocious dog", the use of the adjective "galak" is not stative at all.
Often the "ber-" intransitive verb prefix, or the "ter-" stative prefix is used to express the meaning of "to be For example, "beda" means "different", hence "berbeda" means "to be different"; "awan" means "cloud", hence "berawan" means "cloudy".
Using the "ter-" prefix, implies a state of being. Adjectives, demonstrative determiners, and possessive determiners follow the noun they modify.
Indonesian does not have a grammatical subject in the sense that English does. In intransitive clauses, the noun comes before the verb.
When there is both an agent and an object , these are separated by the verb OVA or AVO , with the difference encoded in the voice of the verb. OVA, commonly but inaccurately called "passive", is the basic and most common word order.
Either the agent or object or both may be omitted. This is commonly done to accomplish one of two things:. For example, a polite shop assistant in a store may avoid the use of pronouns altogether and ask:.
Ultimately, the choice of voice and therefore word order is a choice between actor and patient and depends quite heavily on the language style and context.
Word order is frequently modified for focus or emphasis, with the focused word usually placed at the beginning of the clause and followed by a slight pause a break in intonation:.
Another distinguishing feature of Indonesian is its use of measure words , also called classifiers kata penggolong. Measure words are not necessary just to say "a": Using se- plus a measure word is closer to English "one" or "a certain":.
Indonesian is written with the Latin script. It was originally based on the Dutch spelling and still bears some similarities to it.
Introduced in , the van Ophuijsen system , named from the advisor of the system, Charles Adriaan van Ophuijsen was the first standardization of romanized spelling.
It was most influenced by the then current Dutch spelling system. This spelling changed formerly spelled oe into u however, the spelling influenced other aspects in orthography, for example writing reduplicated words.
All of the other changes were a part of the Perfected Spelling System , an officially mandated spelling reform in Some of the old spellings which were derived from Dutch orthography do survive in proper names; for example, the name of a former president of Indonesia is still sometimes written Soeharto , and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written Jogjakarta.
Indonesian follows the letter names of the Dutch alphabet. Indonesian alphabet has a phonemic orthography ; words are spelled the way they are pronounced, with few exceptions.
The letters Q, V and X are rarely encountered, being chiefly used for writing loanwords. In addition, there are digraphs that are not considered separate letters of the alphabet: A pie chart showing percentage of other languages contribute on loan words of Indonesian language.
It is estimated that there are some Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indonesian, 1, Arabic loans, some of Persian and Hebrew origin, some words of Portuguese, some of Spanish and Italian origin, and 10, loanwords from Dutch.
The study of Indonesian etymology and loan words reveals both its historical and social contexts. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings from the 7th century during the trading era, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and those from Dutch during the colonial period.
Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked. This list only lists foreign languages, and thus omitting numerous local languages of Indonesia that have also been major lexical donors, such as Javanese, Sundanese, Betawi, etc.
For a more complete list of these, see List of loanwords in Indonesian. The Sanskrit influence came from contacts with India since ancient times.
The words were either borrowed directly from India or with the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit , which was the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem and is comparable with the status of Latin in English and other Western European languages.
Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms , these are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion , art and everyday life.
Sanskrit words and sentences are also used in names, titles, and mottos of the Indonesian National Police and Indonesian Armed Forces such as: Because Sanskrit has long been known in the Indonesian archipelago , Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign.
Therefore, one could write a short story using only Sanskrit words. The short story below consists of approximately 80 words in Indonesian that are written using Sanskrit words alone, except for a few particles.
The relationship with China has been going since the 7th century when Chinese merchants traded in some areas of the archipelago such as Riau , West Borneo , East Kalimantan , and North Maluku.
At the kingdom of Srivijaya appeared and flourished, China opened diplomatic relations with the kingdom in order to secure trade and seafaring.
In , Chinese travelers visited Kahuripan in East Java. Since the 11th century, hundreds of thousands of Chinese migrants left Mainland China and settled in many parts of Nusantara now called as Indonesia.
The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or often just things exclusively Chinese. Many Arabic words were brought and spread by merchants from Arab Peninsula like Arabian , Persian , and from the western part of India, Gujarat where many Muslims lived.
Especially since the late 12th century, Old Malay was heavily influenced by the language and produced many great literary works such as Syair , Babad , Hikayat , and Suluk.
Many loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam , and by extension, with greetings such as the word, "selamat" from Arabic: Words of Arabic origin include dunia from Arabic: Many early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates.
In the newer translations this practice is discontinued. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew Word.
For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa Arabic: Several ecclesiastical terms derived from Arabic still exist in Indonesian language.
Indonesian word for bishop is uskup from Arabic: This in turn makes the Indonesian term for archbishop uskup agung literally great bishop , which is combining the Arabic word with an Old Javanese word.
The term imam from Arabic: Some Protestant denominations refer to their congregation jemaat from Arabic: Even the name of the Bible in Indonesian translation is Alkitab from Arabic: Alongside Malay , Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century.
The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail eastwards to the " Spice Islands ". Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia.
These Dutch loanwords, and many other non-Italo-Iberian, European language loanwords that came via Dutch, cover all aspects of life.
Some Dutch loanwords, having clusters of several consonants, pose difficulties to speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually solved by insertion of the schwa.
As a result, Malay words are written with that orthography such as: Many English words were incorporated into Indonesian through globalization.
Many Indonesians, however, mistake words already adopted from Dutch as words borrowed from English. This is due to the Germanic traces that exist in the two languages.
Indonesian adopts English words with standardization. Modern Indonesian draws many of its words from foreign sources, there are many synonyms.
For example, Indonesian has three words for "book", i. A pustaka is often connected with ancient wisdom or sometimes with esoteric knowledge.
A derived form, perpustakaan means a library. A kitab is usually a religious scripture or a book containing moral guidance. The book containing the penal code is also called the kitab.
Buku is the most common word for books. Many words that originally are adopted through the Dutch language today however often are mistaken as English due to the similarity in the Germanic nature of both languages.
In some cases the words are replaced by English language through globalization: It is notable that some of the loanwords that exist in both Indonesian and Malaysian languages are different in spelling and pronunciation mainly due to how they derived their origins: Malaysian utilizes words that reflect the English usage as used by its former colonial power, the British , while Indonesian uses a Latinate form reflected in the Dutch usage e.
Indonesia hosts a sparkling variety of traditional verbal arts such as poetry , historical narratives , romances , and drama ; which are expressed in local languages, but modern genres are expressed mainly through Indonesian.Sieht bös aus, ist aber Eingang zu einer Gebetsstätte. Oft habe ich erlebt, dass Inder mich nach meiner Herkunft fragten und sie dann sagten: Beitrags-Navigation Page 1 Page 2 Next page. Es ist biljar online Fehler aufgetreten. Diese Website verwendet Cookies. Tor zu einem Ashram in Rishikesh. Mit ihm hatte ich nachdem er mir seine Yogihöhle zeigte einen Tee und er sagte ganz unverblümt: Skulptur, Indonesien, Bali, Asien, Uluwatu. Swastika direkt vorweg zu nehmen und klar zustellen:. Und da wir auch noch Kredite anbieten, überlassen sie den Transport lieber uns. Für lokalen Download hier klicken. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Das Älteste Hakenkreuz der Welt ist auf v. Bei diesem Artikel geht es um die religiöse Bedeutung des Swastika, wie man sieht, dreht sich die ganze Webseite um indische Spiritualität.